Volume 6 (2004)

Number 1   / Number 2


LTI Journal Volume 6 Number 1, June 2004

EDITORIAL BOARD

TECHNICAL PAPERS

LAND SUBSIDENCE DUE TO WITHDRAWAL OF DEEP-GROUNDWATER
S.L. Shen , I. Tohno , M. Nishigaki And N. Miura

SHEAR STRENGTH OF COMPACTED GREEN CLAY PHYSICO-CHEMICAL FACTORS
M. Omar, A. Shanableh and A. Tahmaz

A NEW METHOD FOR CALCULATION OF FUZZY RESPONSE SPECTRA OF EARTHQUAKE MOTION IN LOWLANDS
A. Ansari and A. Noorzad

EARTH SEWING TECHNIQUE FOR THE PRESERVATION OF FUNASAKO HISTORICAL KILN SITES
X. J. Chai, S. Hayashi, and Y. J. Du

SOIL IMPROVEMENT OF SOFT GROUND AROUND PILE FOUNDATION IN EARTHQUAKE-RESISTANT DESIGN
T. Ohtsuka, G. Aramaki, and K. Koga

TECHNICAL NOTE

SUNDARBAN MANGROVE FOREST OF THE LOWLAND OF SOUTHWESTERN BANGLADESH AND ITS HYDROGEO-ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS
M. Q. Hassan and K. R. Chowdhury

DISCUSSIONS

DISCUSSION ON gGEOTECHNICAL HAZARDS IN BANGKOK - PRESENT & FUTUREh
A. S. Balasubramaniam , N. Phienwej, D. T. Bergado and Y. N. Oh

AUTHORS' REPLY ON gGEOTECHNICAL HAZARDS IN BANGKOK - PRESENT AND FUTUREh DISCUSSION
S. Shibuya, S.B. Tamrakar, W. Manakul


Title

LAND SUBSIDENCE DUE TO WITHDRAWAL OF DEEP-GROUNDWATER

Author(s)

S.L. Shen , I. Tohno , M. Nishigaki And N. Miura

Abstract

This paper presents a case history of land subsidence due to withdrawal of groundwater from deep marine sediments at the mid-northern part of Boso Peninsula, Chiba, Japan. Since 1969, subsidence has been observed in a large area. The maximum accumulative subsidence in the past 33 years has been about 0.85 m. In order to obtain overall information, 3D FEM analysis was conducted to calculate the land subsidence resulting from extraction of deep-ground water. The calculation method is based on the theory of groundwater flow through saturated and unsaturated media. This is an uncoupled approach for consolidation analysis. The compressibility of ground is considered in the calculation. In the calculation, the behavior of hydraulic conductivity and the compressibility of reservoir rock (Plio-Pleistocene sediments) under high pressure were determined by laboratory odometer tests and take into consideration. The analytical results were compared with the field-observed data. The results showed that this approach simulated the field case fairly well

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Title

SHEAR STRENGTH OF COMPACTED GREEN CLAY PHYSICO-CHEMICAL FACTORS

Author(s)

M. Omar, A. Shanableh and A. Tahmaz

Abstract

Shear strength characteristics of Jordan's green clay influenced by physico-chemical factors have been investigated. The investigation was carried out by subjecting soil to treatment by different cations namely, sodium, calcium, and potassium at three the pH-values (pH= 2.0, pH=7.0, pH=12.0). Treated and untreated soils were tested at three different states on the compaction curve namely dry of optimum, optimum (gamma-d=12.5 kN/m3), and wet of optimum. All specimens were tested for shear strength using unconsolidated undrained triaxial loading procedure. Test results indicated that shear strength of the natural soil was the highest in comparison with treated soils. In addition, K-treated soils showed the highest shear strength followed by the Ca-treated soil while, the Na-treated soil was the lowest in shear strength for all the states on the compaction curve except at wet of optimum, where the Ca-treated soil was the highest in shear strength among all the treated soils. At pH=7.0 (Neutral state) the highest shear strength was recorded but as soils changed from acidic to basic shear, strength decreased accordingly.

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Title

A NEW METHOD FOR CALCULATION OF FUZZY RESPONSE SPECTRA OF EARTHQUAKE MOTION IN LOWLANDS

Author(s)

A. Ansari and A. Noorzad

Abstract

The characteristic parameters of a system which are involved in dynamic analysis of a structure i.e. mass, stiffness and damping in addition to the input excitation have got some kind of fuzziness and vagueness. This vagueness is due to imprecise determination of such parameters and the complexity of real dynamic systems which are common in lowlands. On the other hand, nonhomogenity in soil properties and complex topography of soil layers have a great influence on the response of the ground. As a result, the effect of uncertainty of these parameters on the ground response is very important. This kind of uncertainty is not like randomness and it is necessary to consider it with the help of Fuzzy mathematics. In this paper a new method for fuzzy dynamic analysis of systems is introduced. According to this model, by the means of a parallel system, the problem of combination explosion, which is due to fuzziness of system parameters, is solved. Moreover, the results of a study on the influence of different parameters' fuzziness on the response spectrum are presented and a comparison between results of fuzzy analysis and traditional sensitivity analysis is made. Meanwhile, the effects of such uncertainty on response spectra are described.

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Title

EARTH SEWING TECHNIQUE FOR THE PRESERVATION OF FUNASAKO HISTORICAL KILN SITES

Author(s)

X. J. Chai, S. Hayashi, and Y. J. Du

Abstract

The Funasako historical kiln sites, which are located in the northern part of Kyushu Island in Japan, have been considered as public exhibition areas. This requires preservation of the kiln remains by reinforcement of the soil. Considering the complicated local topography, the reinforcement method that was proposed is a combination of chemical grouting and soil nailing, and is termed the Earth Sewing Technique (EST) in this paper. In order to prevent disturbance of the soil in the kiln remains, a drilling hole diameter for soil nailing of 7 mm with a tendon (bolt) that has a diameter of 3 mm was selected. Field full-scale pullout tests at a model kiln site were carried out before applying the reinforcement technique to the real historical kiln sites. This paper presents the field pullout results and the results of a series of laboratory pullout tests that were conducted to investigate the critical factors affecting the performance of the EST. Design parameters have been recommended based on rational interpretation of the field and laboratory pullout test results. The pullout strength-water content relationships were found to be very useful for understanding and evaluating the shear strength capacity of soil nailing in partially saturated cohesive soils.

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Title

SOIL IMPROVEMENT OF SOFT GROUND AROUND PILE FOUNDATION IN EARTHQUAKE-RESISTANT DESIGN

Author(s)

T. Ohtsuka, G. Aramaki, and K. Koga

Abstract

When a pile foundation structure is designed in soft ground with Japanese road bridge design specifications, there are many cases in which the cross section, the amount of steel reinforcement, and the number of piles are decided according to the displacement limiting value. In such soft ground, it is possible to expect that displacement magnitude of the base structure is suppressed by improving the soft ground around the piles. This study clarified that there was a depression effect by improving the peripheral ground of piles, for both the displacement of the base structure and the bending moment in piles. The calculation was carried out variously, by change of improvement depth and improvement width around the pile. Additionally, the effect of soil improvement for nonlinear response of the bridge pier was also examined. In a series of calculations, a two-dimensional finite element analysis program (FLUSH) often used in earthquake-resistant design was used.

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Title

SUNDARBAN MANGROVE FOREST OF THE LOWLAND OF SOUTHWESTERN BANGLADESH AND ITS HYDROGEO-ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS

Author(s)

M. Q. Hassan and K. R. Chowdhury

Abstract

The paper presents the Sundarban Mangrove Forest and its hydro-enivronmental aspects in particular. The Sundarban Forest is covered by numerous distributaries of the Ganges delta along the coastal belt of the Bay of Bengal of southwest lowland area. The lithological distribution of the surface area is of Geological Quaternary Age. These are clay, mud, silt, medium to fine sand and small patches of shell fragments in the beach area. Brief investigation of channel/ stream / river waters which indicated that the pH values varied from 7.5 to 8.4 and the recorded electrical conductivity (EC) ranges from 7,920 to 19,400 µs/cm, and others ionic concentrations are also found in higher condition. The Sundarban Mangrove Forest frequently become of severe cyclones, tidal flooding and storm surges. The present study can help in the future planning and development of the lowland area of the Sundarban Mangrove Forest.

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LTI Journal Volume 6 Number 2, December 2004

EDITORIAL BOARD

TECHNICAL PAPERS

WATER QUALITY MONITORING OF THE ARIAKE SEA BY REMOTE SENSING AND UTILIZATION OF FIELD OBSERVATION
K. Ohgushi, H. Araki and T.Y. Gan.

MODIFIED HYPERBOLIC MODEL FOR CAPTURING UNDRAINED SHEAR BEHAVIOR
S. Horpibulsuk and R. Rachan.

AN ASSESSMENT ON SOIL DISTURBANCE OF BANGKOK CLAY SAMPLES IN RELATION WITH THE INTRINSIC COMPRESSION BEHAVIOR
P.H. Giao, N. Phien-wej and H. Tanaka

BEARING CAPACITY OF SPREAD FOUNDATIONS ON SAND OVERLYING CLAY
K. Yamamoto and D. Kim

ZONAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT BASED ON ZONAL COMMUNITY PREFERENCES: AN ALTERNATIVE OF LAND DEVELOPMENT CONTROL IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
K. Limapornwanitch, K. Teknomo and K. Hokao

RESIDENTIAL LIFESTYLES AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENT EVALUATION: A CASE STUDY OF SAGA CITY, JAPAN
J. Ge and K. Hokao

TECHNICAL NOTE

THE DSS ePLANNING KITf AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE SPANKRACHT STUDY
A.G. Kors

RESEARCH FRAMEWORK ON THE SUITABLE DEVELOPMENT MODEL AND MECHANISM OF GREEN SETTLEMENT IN THE YANGTZE RIVER DELTA
Z. Wang, Y. He and J. Ge


Title

WATER QUALITY MONITORING OF THE ARIAKE SEA BY REMOTE SENSING AND UTILIZATION OF FIELD OBSERVATION

Author(s)

K. Ohgushi, H. Araki and T.Y. Gan.

Abstract

A remote sensing is one of the most powerful solutions for estimating water quality in wide water bodies effectively. The earth observation satellites Landsat have been observing the land and ocean from space for a long time with consistent specification plus new additional technology. In this paper, a water quality in the Ariake Sea, Japan is estimated by using Landsat-TM and ETM+ images with field observation. The models for water salinity and chlorophyll-a concentration are developed by regression analysis like the transparency and water temperature models, and they are also validated by other observed data. In order to understand characteristics of water quality in the Ariake Sea , a continuous observation was also executed at a fixed observation tower in the bay for about five months. A GIS technique was also applied to consider spatial and seasonal characteristics of water environment of this bay .

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Title

MODIFIED HYPERBOLIC MODEL FOR CAPTURING UNDRAINED SHEAR BEHAVIOR

Author(s)

S. Horpibulsuk and R. Rachan.

Abstract

The hyperbolic and modified hyperbolic models are proposed to predict the stress~strain response of the uncemented, naturally cemented and induced cemented clays under undrained shear so as to suggest the simple analysis and assessment. The hyperbolic responses of stress ratio and shear strain ( h , e s ) as well as of effective mean principal stress and shear strain ( p ‘ , e s ) are introduced to assess the undrained shear behavior of the uncemented and naturally cemented clay. The modified hyperbolic responses are employed for the induced cemented clays. These models consist of the parameters, which control the constitutive behavior of the uncemented, naturally cemented, and induced cemented clays in undrained situation. These parameters are easily determinable from standard triaxial tests. The predicted and laboratory responses are in good agreement.

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Title

AN ASSESSMENT ON SOIL DISTURBANCE OF BANGKOK CLAY SAMPLES IN RELATION WITH THE INTRINSIC COMPRESSION BEHAVIOR

Author(s)

P.H. Giao, N. Phien-wej and H. Tanaka

Abstract

Recent researches have again stirred up the soil disturbance issue and clearly indicated how significantly it could affect on soil characterization, empirical relationship between different soil parameters and, finally, design calculations. In this study, analyses of sample quality were carried out for a large amount of the samples taken from a coastal site near the Gulf of Thailand . The results of the study on intrinsic compression suggested that Bangkok clay seems to be less cemented than some other clays known for being structured like Pusan or Louseville clays. By putting this finding next to the fact that Bangkok clay has not a big thickness, one can consider that the soil disturbance of Bangkok clay would not be so critical. On the other hand, the analyses have indicated that samples collected by the procedure of wash boring and Shelby sampling tube as commonly practiced in Bangkok plain were clearly subjected to soil disturbance. Consequently, quality of Bangkok clay samples to be tested should not be taken for granted as it has been for decades, and more studies on disturbance of Bangkok clay as well as an improvement in sampling procedure are therefore needed.

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Title

BEARING CAPACITY OF SPREAD FOUNDATIONS ON SAND OVERLYING CLAY

Author(s)

K. Yamamoto and D. Kim

Abstract

The ultimate bearing capacity of spread foundations on a sand layer overlying clay has been extensively investigated for practical use. First, a review of previous studies on bearing capacity problems for this type of foundation has been performed and a discussion is presented concerning the application to practice. Second, the kinematic approach of limit analysis has been used to calculate the upper bound of the true ultimate bearing capacity. The kinematic solutions are upper bounds and their accuracy depends primarily on the nature of the assumed failure mechanism. This approach makes it convenient to create design charts, and it is possible to trace the influence of parameters. Third, the commercial finite element program ABAQUS was applied to obtain the ultimate bearing capacity based on the elasto-plastic theory. Although FE analysis has still not gained wide acceptance in foundation practice, FE analysis has the great advantage in which the equations of equilibrium and compatibility are solved together, compared with limit analysis. Finally, results obtained from the kinematic approach and the program ABAQUS were compared with those from the existing limit equilibrium equations proposed by Yamaguchi, Meyerhof and Okamura et al. for confirming the validity of their application to practice.

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Title

ZONAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT BASED ON ZONAL COMMUNITY PREFERENCES: AN ALTERNATIVE OF LAND DEVELOPMENT CONTROL IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Author(s)

K. Limapornwanitch, K. Teknomo and K. Hokao

Abstract

Many planners have recently utilized the Development Impact Assessment to control land developments in their cities. The traditional impact assessment framework focuses on the site specific level, and mostly concerns only limited types of development impacts. In fact, the city growths are the results of simultaneous developments and their adverse impacts are diverse, such as economic losses and environmental degradations. These become the limitations of impact assessment to manage the actual urbanizations. We have developed a framework of Zonal Impact Assessment (ZIA) to overcome those limitations. Our framework mainly evaluates the generated impacts in each zone rather than an isolated project. The ZIA can analyze the impacts of simultaneous developments in many zones, and many kinds of impacts can be considered. Furthermore, the survey results of public participation were included to identify the sensitive areas for development impact based on the preferences of zonal communities. The Bangkapi case study was elucidated to demonstrate the ZIA application concerning traffic impacts of developments. The impact distributions were evaluated and visualized for planning process. It was found that ZIA is an alternative tool in balancing between infrastructure demands and urban developments to reach a sustainable community.

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Title

RESIDENTIAL LIFESTYLES AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENT EVALUATION: A CASE STUDY OF SAGA CITY, JAPAN

Author(s)

J. Ge and K. Hokao

Abstract

With the diversification of personal sense of values, as well as the abundance of lifestyle s , people's demands on residential environment are becoming more and more abundant. In this paper, by the case study of Saga City , the approaches to grasp the residential lifestyles are analyzed at first. Then, through each approach, the residential lifestyle patterns were classified, and the characteristics of each pattern were grasped. Furthermore, the relationship between residential lifestyle and residential environment evaluation are analyzed, and the suitable models for various styles were established. The results not only can be used as the rudimentary data for the improvement and development of residential environment, the methodology of considering residential lifestyle can also bring about a new and useful viewpoint for the further research of residential environment evaluation.

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Title

THE DSS ePLANNING KIT' AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE SPANKRACHT STUDY

Author(s)

A.G. Kors

Abstract

The Netherlands is expected to face severe consequences of climate change. A rise of the average sea level with 60 cm and an increase with about 20% of the extreme discharges of the rivers Rhine and Meuse might be expected ad the end of this century. This requires measures. Therefore a policy analyses has been carried out to determine which strategy could be followed to maintain the current safety standards. In this policy analyses about three hundred spatial measures were evaluated. To support the work a Decision Support System has been developed: the Planning Kit. This article presents the Planning Kit and illustrates working with the Planning Kit. In the Spankracht study the Planning Kit proved to be an indispensable instrument in the evaluation process.

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Title

RESEARCH FRAMEWORK ON THE SUITABLE DEVELOPMENT MODEL AND MECHANISM OF GREEN SETTLEMENT IN THE YANGTZE RIVER DELTA

Author(s)

Z. Wang, Y. He and J. Ge

Abstract

By selecting a breakthrough point from the Green Settlement of towns and cities in the Yangtze river delta, which is of great significance to the sustainable development strategy for human settlement in China, this research tries to integrate the enduring regional ggenesh of settlement, to explore the external character and internal law of the basic urban residential unit, and grasp its controlling/adjustment mechanisms. On this base, detailed goals, evaluation systems, space/form models and suitable technologies of sustainable development are expected to be established. Thus, the sustainable development strategy for human settlement in that region can be promoted and serve as a guide for China as a whole.

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